Mechanistic Study of USP15-Dependent Deubiquitination and Characterization of Natural Compounds that Modulate the Nrf2-Keap1 Antioxidant Response

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/145720
Title:
Mechanistic Study of USP15-Dependent Deubiquitination and Characterization of Natural Compounds that Modulate the Nrf2-Keap1 Antioxidant Response
Author:
Villeneuve, Nicole Frances
Issue Date:
2011
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Embargo: Release after 10/7/2011
Abstract:
Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that regulates a battery of downstream genes that contain an antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters, including intracellular redox-balancing proteins, phase II detoxifying enzymes, and transporters. These Nrf2-dependent proteins work in collaboration to protect against many diseases where oxidative stress plays an essential role in disease onset and progression. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the basic molecular mechanisms of how Nrf2 is regulated so we can target this pathway for disease prevention and treatment.Nrf2 is mainly regulated at the protein level by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Under basal conditions Nrf2 is constantly ubiquitinated by the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Currently, regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by ubiquitination is largely understood. However, the mechanism responsible for removal of ubiquitin conjugated to Nrf2 or Keap1 remains unknown. In this dissertation, we identified two molecular mechanisms that are important in understanding how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated: (i) USP15 negatively regulates the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by deubiquitinating Keap1 and (ii) deubiquitinated-Keap1 binds in the Cul3-Keap1-E3 ligase complex more tightly than ubiquitinated-Keap1. Additionally, (iii) we demonstrated the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in USP15-dependent paclitaxel-chemoresistance.Under oxidative stressed or induced conditions the ability of the E3-ligase to target Nrf2 for degradation becomes impaired. As a result, Nrf2 is stabilized and free Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus and initiates transcription of ARE-bearing genes. Activation of this pathway is advantageous for chemoprevention. In Chapters 4 and 5, we identified and characterized two activators of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway, oridonin and cinnamic aldehyde. These compounds inhibit Cul3-Keap1-dependent degradation of Nrf2, stabilize Nrf2 protein levels, and activate the antioxidant response. Furthermore, both compounds are able to protect against cytotoxic and genotoxic stress-induced cell death. Moreover, our study on USP15 has elucidated an additional mechanism that allows small molecules, such as oridonin, to activate Nrf2 by causing a switch in ubiquitination from Nrf2 to Keap1. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated, which is imperative in targeting this pathway for chemoprevention or chemotherapy.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
cinnamic aldehyde; Keap1; Nrf2; oridonin; ubiquitination; USP15
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Pharmacology & Toxicology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Zhang, Donna D.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleMechanistic Study of USP15-Dependent Deubiquitination and Characterization of Natural Compounds that Modulate the Nrf2-Keap1 Antioxidant Responseen_US
dc.creatorVilleneuve, Nicole Francesen_US
dc.contributor.authorVilleneuve, Nicole Francesen_US
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseEmbargo: Release after 10/7/2011en_US
dc.description.abstractNrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that regulates a battery of downstream genes that contain an antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters, including intracellular redox-balancing proteins, phase II detoxifying enzymes, and transporters. These Nrf2-dependent proteins work in collaboration to protect against many diseases where oxidative stress plays an essential role in disease onset and progression. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the basic molecular mechanisms of how Nrf2 is regulated so we can target this pathway for disease prevention and treatment.Nrf2 is mainly regulated at the protein level by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Under basal conditions Nrf2 is constantly ubiquitinated by the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Currently, regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by ubiquitination is largely understood. However, the mechanism responsible for removal of ubiquitin conjugated to Nrf2 or Keap1 remains unknown. In this dissertation, we identified two molecular mechanisms that are important in understanding how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated: (i) USP15 negatively regulates the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by deubiquitinating Keap1 and (ii) deubiquitinated-Keap1 binds in the Cul3-Keap1-E3 ligase complex more tightly than ubiquitinated-Keap1. Additionally, (iii) we demonstrated the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in USP15-dependent paclitaxel-chemoresistance.Under oxidative stressed or induced conditions the ability of the E3-ligase to target Nrf2 for degradation becomes impaired. As a result, Nrf2 is stabilized and free Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus and initiates transcription of ARE-bearing genes. Activation of this pathway is advantageous for chemoprevention. In Chapters 4 and 5, we identified and characterized two activators of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway, oridonin and cinnamic aldehyde. These compounds inhibit Cul3-Keap1-dependent degradation of Nrf2, stabilize Nrf2 protein levels, and activate the antioxidant response. Furthermore, both compounds are able to protect against cytotoxic and genotoxic stress-induced cell death. Moreover, our study on USP15 has elucidated an additional mechanism that allows small molecules, such as oridonin, to activate Nrf2 by causing a switch in ubiquitination from Nrf2 to Keap1. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated, which is imperative in targeting this pathway for chemoprevention or chemotherapy.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectcinnamic aldehydeen_US
dc.subjectKeap1en_US
dc.subjectNrf2en_US
dc.subjectoridoninen_US
dc.subjectubiquitinationen_US
dc.subjectUSP15en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorZhang, Donna D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWondrak, Georg T.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberVaillancourt, Richard R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChen, Qin M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFutscher, Bernard W.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest11460-
dc.identifier.oclc752261328-
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