Chimeric and Recombinant Protein Reagents for Cellular Analysis and Immunoassays

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/145441
Title:
Chimeric and Recombinant Protein Reagents for Cellular Analysis and Immunoassays
Author:
Rauf, Femina
Issue Date:
2011
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Development of chimeric, recombinant peptides, proteins and enzymes expands the availability of protein/enzyme–based tools for cellular analysis and new assay platforms. Ideal protein reagents for cellular analysis must translocate into a variety of cells with minimum cell damage, retain stability and biological activity within the cell during analysis, and provide a reliable, measurable signal. This work focused on development, characterization and utilization of chimeric recombinant peptide, protein and enzyme reagents for cellular analysis and immunoassays. A cell-penetrating, fluorescent protein substrate (PKAS) was developed to monitor intracellular protein kinase A activity in cells without the need for cellular transfection. PKAS translocated into HeLa cells, βTC-3 cells and pancreatic islets with minimal toxicity. Upon cellular loading, glucose dependent phosphorylation of PKAS was observed in both βTC-3 and pancreatic islets via capillary zone electrophoresis. In pancreatic islets, maximal PKAS phosphorylation (83 ± 6 %) was observed at 12 mM glucose, whereas maximal PKAS phosphorylation (86 ± 4 %) in βTC-3 cells was with 3 mM glucose indicating a left-shifted glucose sensitivity. A cell-penetrating luciferase chimera (Luc-TAT) and a cell-penetrating phospholipid nanoshell entrapped luciferase (Luc-PPN) was constructed to monitor dynamic changes in intracellular ATP levels in mammalian cells. Upon cellular loading, the activity of Luc-TAT and Luc-PPN was monitored with time. Luc-TAT lost approximately 50% activity within one hour, and decreased rapidly over time. In contrast Luc-PPNs retain approximately 95% activity in 1 hour and 77% after 12 hours showing longer biological lifetime. Luc-PPNs were able to detect dynamic ATP changes in intact HeLa cells in the presence of KCN and NaN3. The bioluminescence returned to background levels within 8-10 minutes after treatment with KCN, whereas NaN₃ showed ~ 40% reduction. Two novel recombinant human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) analogs hPTHEGFP and hPTH-Cys were prepared to develop immunoassays for PTH detection in clinical samples. Initial experiments show promise for these analogs for use in CZELIF based immunoassays. The analogs present a number of distinctive advantages for clinical assays and can be used to develop several immunoassay platforms.
Type:
Electronic Dissertation; text
Keywords:
Capillary Electrophoresis; Cell-Penetrating Peptides; Human Parathyroid Hormone; Immunoassays; Liposomes; Proteins
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Chemistry
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Aspinwall, Craig A.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleChimeric and Recombinant Protein Reagents for Cellular Analysis and Immunoassaysen_US
dc.creatorRauf, Feminaen_US
dc.contributor.authorRauf, Feminaen_US
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractDevelopment of chimeric, recombinant peptides, proteins and enzymes expands the availability of protein/enzyme–based tools for cellular analysis and new assay platforms. Ideal protein reagents for cellular analysis must translocate into a variety of cells with minimum cell damage, retain stability and biological activity within the cell during analysis, and provide a reliable, measurable signal. This work focused on development, characterization and utilization of chimeric recombinant peptide, protein and enzyme reagents for cellular analysis and immunoassays. A cell-penetrating, fluorescent protein substrate (PKAS) was developed to monitor intracellular protein kinase A activity in cells without the need for cellular transfection. PKAS translocated into HeLa cells, βTC-3 cells and pancreatic islets with minimal toxicity. Upon cellular loading, glucose dependent phosphorylation of PKAS was observed in both βTC-3 and pancreatic islets via capillary zone electrophoresis. In pancreatic islets, maximal PKAS phosphorylation (83 ± 6 %) was observed at 12 mM glucose, whereas maximal PKAS phosphorylation (86 ± 4 %) in βTC-3 cells was with 3 mM glucose indicating a left-shifted glucose sensitivity. A cell-penetrating luciferase chimera (Luc-TAT) and a cell-penetrating phospholipid nanoshell entrapped luciferase (Luc-PPN) was constructed to monitor dynamic changes in intracellular ATP levels in mammalian cells. Upon cellular loading, the activity of Luc-TAT and Luc-PPN was monitored with time. Luc-TAT lost approximately 50% activity within one hour, and decreased rapidly over time. In contrast Luc-PPNs retain approximately 95% activity in 1 hour and 77% after 12 hours showing longer biological lifetime. Luc-PPNs were able to detect dynamic ATP changes in intact HeLa cells in the presence of KCN and NaN3. The bioluminescence returned to background levels within 8-10 minutes after treatment with KCN, whereas NaN₃ showed ~ 40% reduction. Two novel recombinant human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) analogs hPTHEGFP and hPTH-Cys were prepared to develop immunoassays for PTH detection in clinical samples. Initial experiments show promise for these analogs for use in CZELIF based immunoassays. The analogs present a number of distinctive advantages for clinical assays and can be used to develop several immunoassay platforms.en_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.subjectCapillary Electrophoresisen_US
dc.subjectCell-Penetrating Peptidesen_US
dc.subjectHuman Parathyroid Hormoneen_US
dc.subjectImmunoassaysen_US
dc.subjectLiposomesen_US
dc.subjectProteinsen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorAspinwall, Craig A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWysocki, Vicki H.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMontfort, William R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHorton, Nancy C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMiranda, Katrina M.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest11616-
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